Blood sugar concentration is the quantity of sugar in the blood of human or animal; it is also termed blood glucose.
The blood sugar test measures the quantity of a particular type of sugar termed glucose in the blood. This particular type of sugar comes from foods that contain carbohydrates. The glucose is the main energy source for the body. A hormone termed insulin enables the body to utilize glucose. Pancreas is responsible for producing insulin. Pancreas releases insulin in the blood when the blood sugar levels rise.
Generally the blood sugar level increases slightly after taking meals. The increase activates the pancreas to release insulin; so the blood sugar does not get very high. Blood sugar if remains elevated for a long period of time, it starts to damage eye, kidneys, blood vessels and nerves.
Different types of blood of blood sugar tests are used for this
Fasting Blood Sugar
It measures the level of glucose in blood after you have not eaten anything for the minimum of 8 hours. Generally it is the first test that is performed for checking pre-diabetes or diabetes in the person that is suspected for such illness
Random Blood Sugar
It measures the level of glucose in the blood regardless of the fact when a person has last eaten. More than one random check is carried out throughout the day. This test is useful as the blood sugar of non diabetics do not vary a lot in healthy individuals. If the levels vary widely it depicts that problem exists.
Postprandial Blood Sugar 2-Hours
It measures the level of blood sugar 2 hours exactly you start taking a meal.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
This test is used for the diagnosis of diabetes and pre-diabetes. A series of sugar measurements is taken after drinking a glucose drink. Generally this test is carried out to determine gestational diabetes.
Why Blood Sugar Levels Are Measured
Blood sugar tests are done to
- Diagnose diabetes
- Monitor diabetes treatment
- Detect diabetes during pregnancy
- To detect if a blood sugar level is abnormally low. C-peptide is a test that s carried out to detect the cause of extremely low blood sugar along with blood sugar test.